Historical Background Of Textile Manufacture In Bangladesh

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Textiles play a vital role inward the economic of People’s Republic of Bangladesh. It is said that it is the life job of Bangladeshi economy. But this is non obtain this place overnight. The textile industry of Bengal is real old. With the increment of the Eastern culture ask for finer yarns led to a search together with tillage for long staple cotton fiber fibers. In a tract known every bit Kapasia in the neighborhood of Dacca, such cotton fiber was grown. The advert Kapasia was probably derived from the Sanscrit give-and-take Karpash.

Dhaka Muslin:

Muslin:
With the advent of muslin rules inwards this office of the state, the spinning together with weavers got impetus to make things worthy of their distinctive testes too through their patronage, the countries arts as well as crafts thrived about fourteenth or fifteenth century when the famous Dacca Muslin came into beingness. Production of muslin fabrics was nearly confined to a detail sect known every bit the Basaks of Dacca.

One call for be interested to know as how the word Muslin was derived. It is believed that long staple cotton of extra fineness was grown inward the hilly tract of Masul, the majuscule of Kurdistan, Republic of Iraq. The spinners in addition to the weavers of the place were familiar with the art of producing yarns and fabrics of muslin multifariousness. During the reign of Sultan Qutubuddin of turkey around 1210 AD, cotton wool seeds in addition to artisans were brought as well as few selected local artisan were trained. The Basaks of Dhaka not alone learnt the arts too crafts just improved the techniques to a highest perfection leading to the product of the Earth famous Dacca Muslin. This is belike the background of the derivation of the word Muslin from Masul.

Some believe that the muslin originated from the bring up Maisolos. Marco Polo, the famous traveler, visited the Kakatiya kingdom inward which Machilipatnam was located and praised the muslin available at that place. In 1298, Marco Polo describes the material inward his volume “The Travels”. The give-and-take was derived from Mosul , Republic of Iraq. Although this sentiment has the fabric named after the urban center where Europeans start encountered it (Mosul), the cloth is believed to accept originated in Dhaka, upper-case letter of Bangladesh. In the 9th century, an Arab merchant named Sulaiman makes notes of the materials origins inwards Bengal (known as Ruhml inwards Standard Arabic)

extiles play a vital role in the economic of Bangladesh Historical Background of Textile Industry in Bangladesh
Fig: H5N1 woman inwards Dhaka wearing muslin saree during 18th century (Image: Wikipedia)

During the reign of Akbar, Sonargaon was the capital of ancient bangle. It was also known every bit an important port for exporting muslin, to Salt-peter, Borax etc all over the Earth. Among the Europeans, the Dutch as well as the French were the outset to have upwardly this trade on commercial footing. The English language people came in this line of work inward 1666.

Records demo that inward the yr 1787 Muslin Fabrics worth more than millions of rupees were exported to the strange countries through Sonargaon port.

But Dhaka Muslin become famous together with attracted foreign together with transmarine buyer afterward the institution of the Mughal capital letter at Dhaka. The Muslin manufacture of Dhaka received patronage from the Mughal emperors in addition to the Mughal nobility. A huge quantity of the finest sort out of muslin was produced for the purpose of the Mughal emperors, provincial governors together with high officers as well as nobles. In the grate 1851 Exhibition of London, Dhaka Muslin occupied a prominent home, attracted a large issue of visitors in addition to the British press spoke rattling highly of the marvelous Muslin fabrics of Dhaka.

extiles play a vital role in the economic of Bangladesh Historical Background of Textile Industry in Bangladesh
Fig: Muslin weaving

Todays the name “muslin” is entirely a history of ancient Bengal. It is a loosely woven finest cotton fiber cloth which originated in People’s Republic of Bangladesh. It was as fine as l meters long muslin textile could be filled inwards a match box. Remnants of muslin inward the British Museum on computation were plant to be of yarns as fine equally 242 Ne count (115 miles, two furlongs together with lx yards to pound). In some other instance 1 Ratti (two grains) of yarn measured a length of 80 yards that is 332 ne counts. Another tape shows that 20 cubits of textile could be blown off past rima oris. It is too believed that yards of 400 Ne counts were spun purely past mitt. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 legent that in one case a slice of muslin cloth of Nawab ali- Bardi Khan named “Anbe-e-Raoya” was kept on grasses of front earth palace for drying, a moo-cow eat it equally grass. Nawab was angry to the accolade of the cow together with told him to go out from the city.

Manufacturing History of Dhaka Muslin:
Weaving was prevalent inward the Dhaka district inward almost every village, only approximately places get famous for manufacturing superior character of Muslins. These places were Dhaka, Sonargaon, Dhamrai, Teetbady, Junglebary and Bajitpur. Sonargaon is straight off inward Narayanganj district, it was once the capital of Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah in addition to his son (1338-1353), and once again capital letter if Isa Khan in the Mughal menses; Dhamrai is however an of import home on the Bangshi river, virtually twenty miles westward of Dhaka. Teetbady is a hamlet inwards the Kapasia thana of Gazipur district; Junglebary is directly inward the district of Mymensingh on the eastern banking company of the river Brahmaputra; Bajitpur, 15/twenty miles away from Junglebary is too inward Mymensingh district; Junglebary was for long a residence of the family of Isa Khan.

These places manufactured fine character cloth, because they were situated nearly the places where cotton wool suitable for manufacturing Muslins was produced. Everyone of a family unit would demand producing a textile. Generally girls were considered every bit a spinner of muslin yarns. Men felt insulting to spin yarn. The man who was looser in war had to spin yarn as punishment. Several stages they would live crossed. Stages were shuta natano (winding), tana hotano (warping), shan bandha (sizing), narod bandha (drawing), bu- bandha (denting) and kapor bona (weaving). They used bamboo looms for producing muslins.

These looms consist only of 2 bamboo rollers as well as a couple of heddles in addition to a shuttle. The loom inward its entirety is attached between any two native tress affording a comfortable shade. The muslin wearing apparel were as fine equally it could be carried easily through a call up. The finest class of muslin was called Malmal, sometimes mentioned every bit Malmal Shai or Malmal Khas past strange travellers. It was coslty, too the weavers spent a long time, sometimes half-dozen months, to make a slice of this class. It was used by emperors together with nawabs. Muslins procured for emperors were called Malbus Khas as well as those procured for nawabs were called Sarkar-1-Ala. The Mughal regime appointed an officeholder, Darogha or Darogha-one-Malnus Khas to supervise the industry of muslin meant for the emperor or a nawab. The Malmal was also procured for the diwan too other high officers and for Jagat Sheth, the bang-up banker. Muslins other than malmal (or Malbus Khas too Sarkar-1-Ali) were exported by the traders or roughly part was used locally.

Muslin were hand-woven manifestly cloth of extremely fine mitt spun yarns. It was plain –woven cotton wool cloth made in diverse weights. The amend qualities of muslin are fine evenly spun warps too wefts, or fillings. They are given a soft complete, bleached or slice-dyed, and are sometimes patterned inward the loom or printed. The coarser varieties are often of irregular yarns too textures, bleached, unbleached, or piece-dyed together with are more often than not finished past the application of sizing. Grades of muslin are know by such names every bit book, mull, Swiss too sheeting.

Different types of muslin fabrics cite:
Different names were used for unlike qualites of muslin. Different types of muslin fabrics were following:

  1. “Malmal Khas” very fine used by emperors & nawabs of Delhi.
  2. “Sarker EW Ala” really fine used by nawabs of Murshidabad.
  3. “Jhuna” was used by native dancers.
  4. “Rang” was real transparent too net-similar texture.
  5. “Abirawan” was fancifully compared with running water.
  6. “Khassa” was especial lineament, fine or elegant.
  7. “Shabnam” was equally forenoon dew.
  8. “Alaballee” was very fine.
  9. “Tanzib” was equally the adoring the torso.
  10. “Nayansukh” was equally pleasing to the eye.
  11. “Buddankhas” was a exceptional sort out of textile.
  12. “Seerbund” used for turbans.
  13. “Kumees” used for making shirts.
  14. “Doorea” was striped.
  15. “Charkona” was chequered cloth.
  16. “Jamdanee” was figured textile.

Properties of muslin textile:

  • Very fine fabric.
  • It is shine in addition to fragile.
  • It is cool together with comfortable.
  • It wears well.
  • It is medium to lightweight.
  • Transparent.

Uses of muslin:

  • Saree.
  • Dress making in addition to sewing
  • Backing or lining for quilts.
  • Culinary
  • Used equally a filter (decanting fine wine)
  • Used to twine a chrismas pudding.
  • Used to mask the background of theater.
  • Curtains or upholstery etc.

Immersing of muslin:
The muslin manufacture of Dhaka declined after the Battle of Palashi, 1757, past the stop of the 18th century, the export of Dhaka Muslin came downwards to most one-half of that of 1747, too past the middl;e of the 19th century was valued at less than x lakh rupees. The decline of Dhaka Muslin was due to loss of patronage from the Mughal emperors, nawabs as well as other high officials. The Mughals are non only lost their power as well as prestige simply as well their buying in addition to spending capacity. With the institution of the East Bharat companionship’sec monopoly over the merchandise of Bengal later on the battle of Plashi, the trade of other European Companies in addition to traders belonging to other national practically came to a end. But the virtually of import drive of refuse too the ultimate extinction of the Muslin industry was the industrial revolution inwards England. The British authorities banned the sale of muslin together with production in 1800.

They tortured on the weaver of muslin. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 legend that the British regime had cutting the thumb fingers of the muslin weavers. The costly Dhaka cotton goods, peculiarly the Muslin, lost inwards competition amongst inexpensive international products of England.

Jamdani:
Jamdani is an ancient fine Muslin fabric amongst geometric or floral designs. The origin of the give-and-take jamdani is uncertain. One pop belief is that it came from the Persian give-and-take jamdani, which means,a vase of flowers, “jamdani” the bang-up feature of fine art inward hand weaving.

A legend says that emperor Aurangzeb went into fit rage when, 1 solar day he saw his daughter wearing goose egg. On his rebuke, she replied that she is wearing not one, just 7 dresses roofing her body. Such is the fineness of manus woven fabrics.

extiles play a vital role in the economic of Bangladesh Historical Background of Textile Industry in Bangladesh
Fig: Dhakai jamdani

Without whatever shadow of doubt, it tin be said that the fine art of making jamdani designs on fine fabric reached its zenith during Mughal rule. In India, Jamdani is existence produced in West Bengal as well as Faizabad inwards Uttar Pradesh. There were hand looms inward virtually all villages of the Dhaka district. Dhaka, Sonargoan, Dhamrai. Titabari, Jangalbari in addition to Bajitpur were famous for making superior lineament jamdani in addition to muslin. The Mughal Emperor , the Nawab of Bengal together with other aristocrats used to engage agents at Dhaka to purchase high lineament muslin in addition to jamdani for their masters function. The involve for jamdani together with muslin fabrics at dwelling as well as abroad grew and this prompted farther improvement inwards their manufacture.

Manufacturing History of Jamdani:
The “Mughals” recognized the excellence, acknowledged of jamdani’sec rarity. During the part of Emperor Jahangir as well as Aurangjeb, the manufacturer of finer Jamdani was a rare production in addition to a royal monopoly. There were ii types of jamdani according to part of manufacturing. The weavers of Dacca were expert inward Jandani known every bit ‘Daccai Jamdani’ was continued to train under the partronage of Nawabs of Dacca (soon nether Bangladesh) together with Jamdani is beingness produced inward West Bengal together with Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh were they brand jamdani, named Tanda (also known every bit “Awadh Jamdani”)- a cotton wool fabric brocaded amongst cotton fiber in addition to sometimes zari (a tinsel, metal thread) thread were continued to educate nether the patronage of ‘Nawabs’ Wajid Ali Shah of Tanda.

Manufacturing material:

  • Raw cloth: Karpash cotton wool or silk thread
  • Machinery/Tool:
  • Handloom
  • Scissors
  • Charka (spinning m/c)
  • Taku (spindle)
  • Maku (shuttle)
  • Spools (used for pattern)

Manufacturing procedure:

  • To produce pure cotton fiber Jamdanis weavers use cotton wool /silk blends, or other varities of fiber.
  • Yarns were dyed using herbal dyes.
  • Jamdani is mitt-woven on aloom made of bamboo, where the weaver sits inwards a trench or pit that is dug into the ground.
  • One peculiarly of jamdani loom is that it does not make whatever sound spell weaving.
  • The creation of the warp in addition to the setting up too dressing of the loom are similar to other hand-loom weaving techniques.
  • In weaving, using a throw shuttle known equally the maku, the base of operations material is woven inwards aplain weave structure.
  • Traditionally an open weave that look thin and has an chemical element transparency.
  • Motif: Two weavers sit down next at the loom and add every discontinuous supplementary weft motif seperately, by manus, interlacing the supplementary weft threads into the warp amongst fine bamboo sticks in a zigzag way using individual spools of thread. No warp-lifting mechanism is used.
  • The cotton wool threads used for opaque motifs are sometimes replaced past zari (gilt) threads.
  • The supplementary weft threads used are traditionaly thicker and heavier than threads used to weave the base of operations fabric.
  • Those woven with a silk base often function cotton threads to create the brocade pattern.
  • The designs are never sketched or outlined, just are made while the material is nonetheless on the loom, inserted by paw during the process of weaving, producing an embroidery-like outcome Motifs. Important characteristics of Jamdani include the motifs, generally floral, are of geometric shape, unremarkably spreading across the material inward adiagonal format. The spread of motifs diagonally across the cloth is called Tercha.
  • Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 starch mixture is applied to the fabric subsequently each meter is woven simply piece it is yet on the loom.

Structure of Jamdani:
Mainly Jamdani is a manifestly woven textile. Every woven cloth has a warp, the longitudinal threads of the cloth, as well as a weft, the threads that get horizontally across. Jamdani has supplementary (or extra) weft that is introduced wherever the design is to be placed too woven into that selected home alone. It serves every bit just ornamentation and is non a part of the textiles construction inward the way that the regular warp together with weft are.

Properties of Jamdani cloth:

  • Very fine cloth.
  • Smooth too soft
  • Comfortable
  • Medium to lightweight
  • Transparent

Uses of Jamdani:
Jamdani is a form of fine cloth, generally used for saree. Today’second the uses of Jamdani is versatile. Now Jamdani is also used for making dresses (Three slice, Punjabi, Kamiz, Tops), scarves, handkerchiefs, ornas, hand handbag, bed covers, pillow covers, curtains, wall mate etc.

Jute goods:
From the 17th century to the centre of 20th century, the British Empire authorization was delegated by the British East India Company which was the outset jute trader. The raw jute was traded by this society. During the commencement of 20th century, Margaret Donnelly inwards Dundee had ready first jute manufactory inwards India. The offset consignment of jute was exported by East Bharat Company inwards the twelvemonth 1793. In the outset of twelvemonth 1830, Dundee spinners have determined spinning of jute yarn past transfiguring their ability driven flax machinery. This leads to increment inward the export together with product of raw jute from Indian sub-continent which was the single supplier of jute.

After getting independence, nigh of the jute barons had started to quit India, leaving the ready of jute mills. Most of them were past Marwaris businessmen. During the year 1947, afterward the segmentation, East Pakistan had the finest stock of jute. From so onwards, different groups of Pakistani families accept joined the jute business organization by establishing many kills inward Narayanganj and Khulna. At that fourth dimension, the export of jute fabric was being a powerful foreign currency earner too playing a vital role inward the economic system of the land. In the yr 1971, afterwards the liberation of Bangladesh took home from Islamic Republic of Pakistan near of the jute mills were taken over by the Bangladesh government. Later, authorities had built BJMC (People’s Republic of Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation) to control as well as handgrip jute mills of People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The most basic together with essential jute commodities fabricated inwards Bangladeshi jute mills are: Carpets, Hessain and Sacking material for bags, Hydro-carbon costless textile, Geo-material, different types of hand bags as well as decorative items.

Garment manufacture:
In 1978 the RMG manufacture established in Bangladesh alongside ix enterprises as well as has grown at a blistering stride since. This phenomenal growth is due largely to the unproblematic degree of applied science required inwards the manufacture. The mechanism is relatively inexpensive together with easily available. In add-on, garments producers can function inward smaller premises than those required by most of the processes in the fabric industry. On superlative of this, Bangladesh has an abundant provide of inexpensive task consisting generally of women for whom this is ane of the near suitable forms of use. This factors too every bit incentives such every bit liberal trade policies, low tariffs on imported mechanism in addition to bonded warehouse facilities helps the growth of the garments industry.

References:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_industry_in_Bangladesh
  2. http://www.btmadhaka.com/
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamdani
  4. Introduction of Textile Engineering by Dr. Hosne Ara Begum
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslin
  6. http://www.textiletoday.com.bd/
  7. http://www.fibre2fashion.com
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